Monday, May 25, 2020
Holden and the Complexity of Adult Life What was wrong with Holden, the main character in The Catcher in the Rye, by J.D.Salinger, was his moral revulsion against anything that was ugly, evil, cruel, or what he called quot;phoneyquot; and his acute responsiveness to beauty and innocence, especially the innocence of the very young, in whom he saw reflected his own lost childhood. There is something wrong or lacking in the novels of despair and frustration of many writers. The sour note of bitterness and the recurring theme of sadism have become almost a convention, never thoroughly explained by the authors dependence on a psychoanalytical interpretation of a major character. The boys who are spoiled or turned into buddingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦What happens to him is heart-rending. To many readers some of his words and accidents that befall him may seem to be too raw to be expressed in the words of a childish youth. If readers can be shocked in this manner they should be advised to let the book alone. What was wrong with Holden was his moral revulsion against anything that was ugly, evil, cruel, or what he called quot;phoneyquot; and his acute responsiveness to beauty and innocence, especially the innocence of the very young, in whom he saw reflected his own lost childhood. The book is full of the voices and the delightful antics of children. Especially he adored his stalwart and understanding little sister, who in the end undoubtedly saved him from suicide. And there were the memories of his dead brother, whom he had loved, and a teacher in the first school from which he was dismissed. He had no other friends, dead or alive. He accepted his parents, whose union had been happy, as one of the stable factors in a devastating world. When he ran away from school he knew that he had three days before they would hear of his dismissal from the headmaster. His desire to escape from the ordeal of their disappointment in him and to hide in New York, to go underground, is understandable. Not every boy would have done it, but the reader is convinced that Holden would and that his behavior throughout the book isShow MoreRelatedInterpretive Analysis : The Catcher Rye 2082 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesGaby Yonarta Mrs. Johns English 3-4 (H), Period 5 17 August 2015 Part I: Interpretive Analysis The Catcher in the Rye 1. Although Holden so passionately despise Ã¢â¬Å"phoniesÃ¢â¬ , he himself can be categorized as a Ã¢â¬Å"phonyÃ¢â¬ . By definition, a phony individual is someone who is fraudulent and hypocritical and while there are a lot of Ã¢â¬Å"phoniesÃ¢â¬ in the world, what Holden does not realize is that he himself is an even bigger Ã¢â¬Å"phonyÃ¢â¬ than the people he accuse of being Ã¢â¬Å"phoniesÃ¢â¬ . In his mind, he imagines a utopiaRead MoreAdolescence in the Bell Jar and Catcher in the Rye6395 Words Ã |Ã 26 PagesAdolescence in the Bell Jar and Catcher in the Rye Adolescence in the Bell Jar and Catcher in the Rye Adolescence is the period between puberty and adulthood. Every teenager experience this moment in life differently some sail through happily to carry on with a peaceful life where as others are less fortunate and find that this moment is much more harder and stressful then they thought. Esther Greenwood and Holden Caulfield are one of the less fortunate and have bad experiences through their
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Naval architects have designed some crazy looking boats and they will continue to push forward with topside design principals. The hull, on the other hand, is well refined and needs a little tinkering. Hydrodynamics research is driven by supercomputers in the modern world, but the old refined designs originally built by eye and scale models are proving to be very efficient without the help of computer chips. These three shapes are most common. Displacement This is, of course, the classic boat hull shape. It is by far the oldest and most used hull in history. The reed barges of ancient Egypt were floating on the River Nile thousands of years ago. The main feature of this hull is its deep and mostly symmetrical shape. The measurement of hulls is expressed as deadrise, which, in the simplest terms is the angle and distance a portion of the hull rises to meet the deck. This kind of hull usually only has one chine. Tugboats are good examples of a displacement hull since much of the hull is submerged. Cargo vessels also use this shape since the increased buoyancy allows them to carry more weight. The tradeoff is there is also a lot of drag because so much of the hull is below the waterline when underway. The displacement hull is also a very stable platform because of the low center of gravity and weight of displacement vessels. A high center of gravity makes a vessel more unstable but slower to roll from side to side. Displacement hulls roll less but make the trip back and forth much more quickly. Semi-Displacement Semi-Displacement hulls are a hybrid between displacement hulls and planning hulls. The dead rise from the bow to midship would resemble a displacement hull, deep with a tall bow with a wide beam. The deadrise from midship back to the stern would have a shallow bottomed V shape and could be practically flat at the stern. It would also be narrower than the bow and have much less freeboard. These hulls are common on small and medium-sized vessels with a few exceptions. The U.S. NavyÃ¢â¬â¢s Littoral Combat Ship group is one larger example. It is a high-speed shallow draft vessel that nearly planes at full speed. The benefits here are higher speed capabilities since the forward portion of the vessel lifts from the water at high speeds. At rest or at lower speeds the vessel behaves more like a displacement hull. Many military applications use this design for medium-sized vessels since it is very versatile. The shallow deadrise of the stern gives exceptional prop clearance. In some cases, the forward hull has a deeper draft than the propellers. The drawbacks are a wet ride at the rear of the boat since there is little freeboard. Plus using these boats in some conditions can lead to a very rough ride. High speed over chop is not the Semi-displacement hullÃ¢â¬â¢s strong point. Some designs incorporate multiple chines to give a sort of stepped hull that has sweet spots for intermediate speeds Planning A planning hull has little draft. In the water, the vast majority of the hull will be above water. Think of every recreational boat you have ever seen and there is your planning hull example. The hull shape is widely used outside of the recreational boat industry by builders who want a fast and efficient hull. Fast patrol boats are common in military roles around the world and almost all designs are planning hulls. The planning hull skips over the water and at speed, it will only be in contact with the surface at the stern. At this attitude, it has very little drag from the hull. A hull of this design uses multiple chines to lift the hull clear of the water very quickly. The deadrise at the stern is shallow except for the area near the keel. This small but relatively deep V shape give a planning hull good turning characteristics at high speeds. Drawbacks are low carrying capacity and quick and frequent rolling when at rest in even slightly rough waters.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Ethical Case Two: Applications of Utilitarianism The case I chose to apply utilitarianism to is case number three. In case three, I am working for the number one car manufacturer in the country. Our latest model the Hipster is planned to be released but has potential brake issues. These brake malfunctions could cause serious injuries from accidents due to drivers being unable to stop the vehicle. The requirement is to submit a report and let consumers know that there is a recall after the government department approves the recall. However, this recall will end up costing the company a huge amount of money, which will end up taking away from profits. If the company pretended to not knowing about the defective brakes it would save the company money. This would also put our customers at risk. The Hipster models were supposed to be held in customs while an investigation was being made. But, the Hipster models were released without any changes and certifications. Now it is my job to see if I should look more into this event based on applying the principles of utilitarianism. I will apply the thought processes of act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism in the case scenario to give a better understanding of each principle. Before, understanding these principles the term utilitarianism should be defined. Utilitarianism is the idea that one believes whether doing something good or bad morally depends on the effects of an action in maximizing utility. These people are calledShow MoreRelatedCorporate Approaches to Responsible Business1492 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Week 8 Tutorial: Corporate Approaches to Responsible Business (Assessed) Critical Reflection: Question 6 (Shaw et al textbook, pp.198-199) Read the Kellogg case before your tutorial and prepare typed answers to the following questions. Question 1 : Do you think that KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s CSR statement is sincere, or is the company merely trying to convince stakeholders that it is a socially responsible company? Explain. Answer: CSR statement of Kellogg has deceived the public as their products has beenRead MoreEth 501 Case 21657 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCorey Lott ETH 501 Case 2 Business Ethics Utilitarianism is a type of theory that was developed to come up with a proper course of action that maximizes the joy of the stakeholders involved. While consequentialism is defined as the view that value of an action derives solely from the value of its consequences. Today, consequentialism is the form that usually takes form. Utilitarianism tries to evaluate the moral worth of an action after one has considered the actual consequences,Read MoreConsequentialism And Consequentialism : Virtue Ethics, Consequentialism, And Deontology1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEthics is a study dealing with standards that prescribe rules on what people ought to do based on various criteria such as obligation, human rights, and virtue. More precisely, it is a development and establishment of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s moral principle. And under the normative ethics, there are three categories of ethical frameworks: virtue ethics, consequentialism, and deontology. In this essay, I will more concentrate on conseque ntialism, especially utilitarianism, and deontology to make compare and contrastRead MoreMorality Is Objective Moral Theory962 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesObservations I accept both observations given. P1: Morality is Objective. I demonstrated in my opening argument that Utilitarianism operates under the premise that morality is objective. This means it is not based on personal preference or belief. I even provided a source to affirm this fact of objectivity. (1) FamousÃ¢â¬â¢ first contention is that normative ethics are subjective and thus cannot be used to affirm objectivity. This is entirely untrue. It is worth noting that he provides no source toRead MoreUtilitarianism And Deontological Ethics In The MovieExtreme Measures?1133 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescan be very difficult with all of the rules and stipulations placed on utilizing human subjects for study. In the movie, Ã¢â¬Å"Extreme Measures,Ã¢â¬ two doctors with opposing morals fight over what they believe is right. Dr. Lawrence takes more of a utilitarianism viewpoint, while Dr. Luthan takes a more strict position closer to KantÃ¢â¬â¢s ethical system, deontological ethics. The movie contrasts utilitarianism and deontological ethics through the tw o opposing doctors and portrays Dr. Luthan as the most ethicallyRead MoreSweatshops And The Related Ethical Issues About It Essay1749 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction This assignment is going to mainly discuss the existing of sweatshops and the related ethical issues about it. Ethical theory will be applied in the study about the topic and personal reflection is also going to displayed in the assignment. An understanding of it may be not interesting but can be helpful to do research or run firms or organizations related in the future. Firstly, the assignment will introduces the background of sweatshops and anti-sweatshop movements as the oppositeRead MoreEthics And Moral Standards Of An Individual1256 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesarise in almost every profession, and in the medical field, there is integration of both ethical principle and legal principles. One ethical theory used in the medical realm developed by English philosophers Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill is utilitarianism or has also been known as consequentialism (Mizzoni, 2010). The theory primarily identifies positive outcomes without regard to the way by which the outcome is attained. This philosophy educates those to provide methods for supporting good consequencesRead MoreEthical Issue in Pharmacy1618 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesethical duty of a pharmacy is to promote a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s best interest. However, certain obvious ethical issues will arise. Within any business involved in bulk purchasing the issue of unconscious theft will also occur. The following paper focuses on the application of ethical theories that supports as well as argues the behavior within Chaguanas Drug Mart. Chaguanas Drug Mart was established in 2008 and is no ordinary pharmacy since it provides more than your medical needs such as beautiful unusual gifts.Read MoreImportance of Ethical Theory in Nursing1322 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDespite their general appreciation in nursing practice, challenges and dilemma often clouds their application in a world which is continually being marked with a culturally diverse and demanding population. In this paper we present a critical review of ethics and cultural competence in professional nursing practice with a clear focus on the justification for the importance of ethical theories of Utilitarianism, Deonatology/Kantianism, Virtue Ethics, Moral Particularism to nursing. The paper also relatesRead MoreIntroduction The purpose of this paper is to examine an ethical dilemma faced by a company who1600 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction The purpose of this paper is to examine an ethical dilemma faced by a company who manufactures critical components for a pacemaker developer. The consequentialist ethical theory of utilitarianism will be used to evaluate the moral implications this company has in continuing further manufacturing for their pacemaker client. An overview of utilitarian ethics will be discussed, focused primarily around 17th century philosopher Jeremy BenthamÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas about ethics. His framework will be
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
MAchiavelli Persuasive Essay John McLaughlinApril 8, 2002ENGL 110Government Response PaperUtopian or Reality?Throughout history, it can be argued that at the core of the majority of successful societies has stood an effective allocation of leadership. Accordingly, in their respective works The Tao-te Ching and The Prince, Lao-Tzu and Machiavelli have sought to reach a more complete understanding of this relationship. The theme of political leaders and their intricate relationship with society indeed manifests itself within both texts, however, both Lao-Tzu and Machiavelli approach this issue from almost entirely opposite positions. Lao-Tzu appears to focus the majority of his attention on letting problems or situations take their course and allowing good to prevail. On the contrary, Machiavelli advocates the necessity for a successful leader, or prince, to take control of his endeavors, and the skills or qualities necessary to maintain power, at any cost. Since these thinkers both make an inquiry to what is esse ntially the same dilemma of effective leadership, it becomes almost a natural progression to juxtapose the two in an effort to better understand what qualities a prosperous leader must possess. In this sense, when we utilize the rhetorical strategy of compare/contrast as a vehicle to transport us to a more enlightened interpretation of Lao-Tzu and Machiavellis conclusions, it becomes apparent that Machiavellis effort is much more successful as his practicality serves its purpose much more effectively. Although they share some similarities in ideology, these parallels are greatly overshadowed by the concepts in which Lao-Tzu and Machiavelli diverge. Their primary distinction lies within their view of human nature and its role in governing. Lao-Tzu maintains that if we promote a system of governing to the least possible extent, then human nature should manifest a favorable temperance and dictate the direction of society. In fact, Lao-Tzu asserts numerous attempts to illustrate his point that if leaders, Stop Trying to control ( 57, 35), then there is no desire ( 37, 24), he dwells in reality ( 38, 29), and the world will govern itself. ( 57, 35) Although this is an extremely optimistic and beneficial ideal, the main problem with Lao-Tzus entire philosophy is exactly that, it can only be viewed as a philosophy. Because it appears under the section entitled Government, I feel as though I am disposed to analyze it as a possible effective form of governing. I believe Lao-Tzus glaring we akness is that he drastically underestimates the potential problems of human nature, especially in the sense that he places us in what is essentially a society void of any possible laws or regulations. Perhaps in his time Lao-Tzu viewed that his interpretation of human nature was entirely possible, but as far as the twenty-first century is involved, the idea that if societies are left unattended we are able to Trust them ( 75, 59) is absurd. It can be argued legitimately that Lao-Tzus concepts have been applied and in fact have proven to be extremely effective. For example, a capitalistic, laissez-faire approach to governing, particularly the form advocated by American Republicans. However, cases of removing regulations and adopting the leadership standards Lao-Tzu advises have been strictly applied to market economics, not to each and every facet of government. Refraining from absolute negativity about Lao-Tzus work, the Tao does have many redeemable qualities. The emphasis Lao-Tzu places on the attainment of individual happiness is extremely honorable, however this doesnt detract from the ineffectiveness Lao-Tzu encounters, as he is unable to come to well-grounded conclusion on the means for effective leadership. His advice to politicians is to only interfere when it is an absolute necessity; yet he takes this to a radical extreme advising leaders to pretty much do nothing. His ideas are taken to an extent where if human nature falters, which it has proven to do time and time again, then his approach advises to let things go their own way. ( 29, 16) It seems that in some cases third party intervention becomes a necessity, a side of the story that Lao-Tzu conveniently fails to mention. Free Euthanasia - Minorities, the Poor and A EssayAs he begins to conclude, Machiavelli states that the prince: should think about avoiding those things which make him hated and despised. (Mach 48) Although these lack any withstanding moral values, they are effective in the sense that they better serve their purpose. Machiavelli was seeking to display a way to hold political power by any means possible not a utopian state. This may mean malicious acts, imprisonment, and torture, or it may mean the utilization of power to achieve a common good. Machiavelli doesnt elaborate on this. He concentrates on a realistic approach towards government, as he remains concerned with the establishment and protection of power. In conclusion,
Tuesday, April 7, 2020
Rapid-Eye-Movement dream, mental activity associated with the rapid-eye-movement (REM) period of sleep. It is commonly made up of a number of visual images, scenes or thoughts expressed in terms of seeing rather than in those of the other senses or in words. Electroencephalograph studies, measuring the electrical activity of the brain during REM sleep, have shown that young adults dream for 1 1/2 to 2 hours of every 8-hour period of sleep. Infants spend an average of 50% of their sleep in the REM phase (they are believed to dream more often than adults) a figure which decreases steadily with age. During dreams, blood pressure and heart rate increase, and breathing is quickened, but the body is otherwise immobile. Studies have shown that sleepers deprived of dream-sleep are likely to become irritable and lose coordination skills. Unusually frightening dreams are called nightmares, and daydreams are constructed fantasies that occur while the individual is awake. Studies have demonstrated the existence of lucid dreaming, where the individual is aware that he is dreaming and has a degree of control over his dream. Sigmund , in his pioneering work The Interpretation of Dreams (1900, tr. 1913), was one of the first to emphasize dreams as keys to the unconscious. He distinguished the manifest content of dreamsthe dream as it is recalled by the individualfrom the latent content or the meaning of the dream, which Freud saw in terms of wish fulfillment. C. G. held that dreams function to reveal the unconscious mind, anticipate future events, and give expression to neglected areas of the dreamer's personality. Another theory, which PET scan studies appear to support, suggests that dreams are a result of electrical energy that stimulates memories located in various regions of the brain. Psychology
Monday, March 9, 2020
Five Words You Can Cut Five Words You Can Cut Five Words You Can Cut By Ali Hale One of the best ways to make your writing stronger is to cut unnecessary words. Many people tend to over-write, often in a similar way to how they would speak. Words creep in that add no meaning and can make a piece of writing sound vague and woolly rather than confidence and precise. Just This is one of the worst offenders for me. I over-use it in email, typing: Ã¢â¬Å"I just thought IÃ¢â¬â¢d drop you a noteÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Just writing to askÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"If you could just give me a callÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ In almost every case, striking out the word Ã¢â¬Å"justÃ¢â¬ will make a sentence stronger. It tends to make you sound either desperate when applied to yourself (Ã¢â¬Å"I just wondered if you couldÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ) or demanding when applied to the other person (Ã¢â¬Å"If you would justÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ). Really Like Ã¢â¬Å"justÃ¢â¬ , this is another word which can frequently be cut. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s often found partnering Ã¢â¬Å"justÃ¢â¬ , in which case you might want to rewrite the whole sentence. Ã¢â¬Å"You can really improve byÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You donÃ¢â¬â¢t really want toÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m really just trying to Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Using the word Ã¢â¬Å"reallyÃ¢â¬ about yourself makes it sounds as though you believe the other person is unsure of your intentions; Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m really writing the reportÃ¢â¬ can sound defensive. And using it about someone else can sound patronising Ã¢â¬â phrases like Ã¢â¬Å"thatÃ¢â¬â¢s really good!Ã¢â¬ are best kept for the kindergarten. Quite This insidious word tends to water down the meaning of a sentence or, worse, make it unclear. It usually means Ã¢â¬Å"a bitÃ¢â¬ as in Ã¢â¬Å"I quite liked itÃ¢â¬ , but can also mean Ã¢â¬Å"completelyÃ¢â¬ as in Ã¢â¬Å"Quite right.Ã¢â¬ Most people have little difficulty understanding those, but sentences like Ã¢â¬Å"I was quite outragedÃ¢â¬ can be taken either way. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢d quite like you to Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m feeling quite upset about it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think you quite understandÃ¢â¬ There are some circumstances where you may well want to keep the word Ã¢â¬Å"quiteÃ¢â¬ , particularly when trying to justify something over-running. Ã¢â¬Å"QuiteÃ¢â¬ is useful in suggesting both Ã¢â¬Å"almost thereÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"soonÃ¢â¬ , and saying Ã¢â¬Å"The files arenÃ¢â¬â¢t quite ready yet Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ implies it wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be much longer, whereas Ã¢â¬Å"The files arenÃ¢â¬â¢t ready yetÃ¢â¬ can sound like stone-walling. Perhaps Like many of the words above, Ã¢â¬Å"perhapsÃ¢â¬ makes your writing sound uncertain. It can obscure meaning, or weaken an otherwise powerful statement, and often causes confusion. Ã¢â¬Å"Perhaps we could meet at twelve for lunch.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And then perhaps youÃ¢â¬â¢d like to Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Perhaps if I Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ The main problem in all these cases is that the word Ã¢â¬Å"perhapsÃ¢â¬ means your intention is unclear. If you email someone suggesting Ã¢â¬Å"Perhaps we could meet at twelve for lunchÃ¢â¬ , are you proposing a lunch meeting, or just idly wondering whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s possible? The Ã¢â¬Å"perhapsÃ¢â¬ also makes it unclear what part of the suggestion is in doubt; do you think twelve might not be the best time, or do you suspect the other person wonÃ¢â¬â¢t want to get lunch? That This is another word which creeps into my writing where itÃ¢â¬â¢s not needed. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s fine when necessary, but can often be cut without any loss of meaning Ã¢â¬â usually when itÃ¢â¬â¢s preceded by a noun. Ã¢â¬Å"This is the house that Jack built.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Can you remember the time that we asked people to arrive?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I liked the design that you came up with.Ã¢â¬ Make sure you donÃ¢â¬â¢t cut valid instances of the word, usually where Ã¢â¬Å"thatÃ¢â¬ comes before the noun. Ã¢â¬Å"I need that document by fiveÃ¢â¬ makes sense, Ã¢â¬Å"I need document by fiveÃ¢â¬ is only safe in a very informal context and if youÃ¢â¬â¢re sure the other person knows which document you mean. Putting it all together If you email someone with Ã¢â¬Å"I really just wondered if perhaps you could send those documents that I mentioned quite soon.Ã¢â¬ you come across as diffident, uncertain and sound like youÃ¢â¬â¢re babbling. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also unclear whether you do need those documents straight away, or whether youÃ¢â¬â¢re simply enquiring whether they could be sent soon. But if you delete the five unnecessary words, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll get Ã¢â¬Å"I really just wondered if perhaps you could send those documents that I mentioned quite soon.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I wondered if you could send those documents I mentioned soon.Ã¢â¬ This sentence is much clearer, more concise, and likely to elicit a quick response. So when youÃ¢â¬â¢ve written an email, article, report or even a piece of fiction, check through for the words just, really, quite, perhaps and that Ã¢â¬â and see if you can improve the piece by cutting them out. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Writing Basics category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:12 Greek Words You Should KnowDeck the HallsWhen to use "an"
Friday, February 21, 2020
Adult nursing - Essay Example Jane David is a 35-year-old female who presented with the complaint of feeling unwell for 2 to 3 weeks. On questioning, it appeared that her symptoms are vague. She complains of loss of energy and feeling generally unwell. On closer questioning, it was apparent that she has had some dysuria and frequency of micturition. She also states that she is now passing much less urine than her usual. It was also revealed that she is slightly nauseous and has no appetite. Despite these, she is feeling heavy. Student nurses suggested she has probably urinary tract infection (UTI).Symptomatic acute bacterial urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections treated by health care professionals. Cystitis accounts for most of these, whereas more than 100,000 patients are admitted to a hospital annually for acute pyelonephritis treatment. Women have many more UTIs than men. Bacteria ascending from the colonized urethra enter the bladder and perhaps the kidneys. The short length of the female urethra allows easier access by bacteria to the bladder. Contributing to contamination, the warm moist vulva and rectum are both in close proximity. Similarly, sexual intercourse increases bladder inoculation. Infections result from the interaction between bacteria and host. Bacterial virulence factors are important, as they enhance colonization and invasion of the lower and upper urinary tract. The principal virulence factor is increased adherence to either vaginal or uroepithelial cells. The bacterial species most frequently recovered from infected urine culture is Escherichia coli. Bacterial cystitis almost always results from the entry of bacteria colonizing the anterior urethra and periurethral skin into the bladder. Hematogenous or lymphatic spread from sites of infection elsewhere is very unusual. The short female urethra is an insufficient anatomic barrier to the entry of urethral bacteria, which may be massaged easily into the bladder. This may explain the association of urinary tract infections and bacteriuria with sexual activity. Presumably, bacteria are massaged into the bladder during sexual intercourse. Once within the bladder, bacteria may ascend within the ureters, enhanced by vesicourethral reflux, into the renal pelvis and cause upper tract infection. The renal parenchyma also can be infected by blood-borne organisms, especially during staphylococcal bacteremia. Mycobacterium tuberculosis gains access to the kidney through this route and also perhaps by ascension. Signs and Symptoms There is a broad spectrum of symptoms in UTIs, ranging from patients who are completely asymptomatic to those with symptoms referable to the urethra, bladder, or both, and to those with the full-blown syndrome of acute pyelonephritis with fever and loin pain. Acute bacterial infection of the bladder is referred to as acute cystitis. Acute cystitis is characterized by inflammation limited to the superficial mucosal layer of the bladder. Patients with cystitis generally complain of dysuria, urgency, and frequency. Hematuria, low back pain, and lower abdominal pain also may be present. Fever and costovertebral-angle tenderness are both absent in most cases. Clinical signs and symptoms are notoriously inaccurate in localizing the site of infection, however, and up to 50% of women with symptoms and signs of cystitis on clinical examination are found to have silent renal infection. Diagnoses The most frequent presenting complaints in otherwise healthy, immunocompetent nonpregnant women are dysuria, frequency, urgency, and incontinence. For a culture specimen to be informative, it must be accurately collected. A "clean catch" midstream voided urine specimen is usually sufficient. It is mandatory that a patient understands the reasons for and the steps associated with urine specimen collection, which are designed to prevent contamination by other bacteria from the vulva, vagina, and/or rectum. More than one bacterial species